Types of addresses and networks

1. Types of addresses

* Network Address


  • Standard way to refer to a network, e.g. "the 10.0.0.0 network.“ 
  • All hosts in it have the same network bits (high-order bits). 
  • The lowest address: reserved for the network address. 
  • The part routers use to forward packets
 
* Broadcast Address

  • Special address allowing communication to all hosts in a network. 
  • Send a single packet addressed to the broadcast address, it’ll be sent to all hosts in the network. 
  • Uses the highest address in the network range. 
 
* Host Address
  • Unique address that belong to every end device
  • The values range between the network address and the broadcast address.


2. Types of networks

* Unicast 

  • The process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host.  
  • Used for all normal traffic.


* Broadcast 

  • The process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network. 
  • Used for the location of special services/devices for which the address is not known or when a host needs to provide information to all the hosts on the network. 
 
* Multicast 

  • The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts.  
  • e.g. Video & audio distribution, Routing information exchange by routing protocols,
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